Industrial heat pumps in industries are generally used for:
? Producing steam.
? Heating water for sanitation.
? Heating water for washing purposes.
? Heating water for cleaning purposes.
? Space heating.
? Cooling and heating process streams.
? Dehumidification purposes.
? Evaporation purposes.
1. The Mechanical Vapor Recompression Systems (MVRS):
These are of two types Open MVRS and semi-open MVRS. These systems are very high in performance. Their Coefficient of Performance (COP) ranges from 10.00 to 30.00. The commonly used working fluid in these systems is water. They can deliver heat from 110 degrees to 150 degrees centigrade.
2. Absorption heat pumps:
These pumps are not that widespread in industrial use. In Denmark and Sweden, these are famous for heat recovery from the refuse incineration plant. Current systems utilize a pair of lithium bromide and water as the working fluid. They have a 100oC output temperature and a Coefficient of Performance in the range of 1.20 to 1.40 which is not very high.
3. Heat Transformer: (type 2)
Heat transformers work on the same principles as that of an absorption heat pump. The COP of these industrial heat pumps is even lower, ranging from 0.45-0.48. Like the absorption pumps, Heat transformers also utilize a water/lithium bromide pair as the working fluid. The maximum temperature that they can deliver is 150 degrees Centigrade.
4. Reverse Brayton-cycle:
A reverse Brayton-cycle heat pump is used in many processes for the purpose of recovering solvents from different gases. This is done by compressing solvent loaded air, and then expanding it. This air is then further cooled and condensed to cause additional expansion and recovering solvent in the turbines.
5. Closed-Cycle compression:
These have a maximum output temperature on 120 degrees centigrade. In all cases, heat pumps of the closed-cycle compression types always have a Coefficient of Performance greater than 1.
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